Joint R&D for Ammonia-Fueled Vessels to Reduce GHG Emissions
NYK Line, Japan Marine United Corp. and Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK) signed a joint R&D agreement for the commercialization of an ammonia-fueled ammonia gas carrier (AFAGC) that would use ammonia as the main fuel, in addition to an ammonia floating storage and regasification barge (A-FSRB).
The joint R&D aims not only to utilize ammonia as a marine fuel but also to establish methods for the mass transportation and supply of ammonia and to become a solution for introducing a mixed combustion of ammonia into coal-fired power stations operated by Japanese electric power companies. As a result, the R&D is expected to contribute significantly to the decarbonization of not only the maritime industry but also the energy industry.
Since carbon dioxide (CO2) is not emitted when ammonia is burned, it has promise as a next-generation fuel that could mitigate shipping’s impact on global warming.
In addition, zero emissions could be realized by utilizing CO2-free hydrogen as a raw material for ammonia. In particular, a significant reduction in CO2 emissions is expected to be achieved by replacing coal and natural gas as the main fuels for power generation.
Parties in Japan have succeeded in generating electricity through the use of a gas turbine with 100 percent ammonia. Innovative thermal-power-generation technologies that contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions are being developed. These technologies are aimed at generating electricity by co-firing ammonia at coal-fired power stations.
The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a significant issue in the marine transportation sector. In 2018, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set the goal of halving GHG emissions from the international maritime sector by 2050 and reaching a target of zero as early as the end of this century.